There a huge number of canals in Amsterdam. Most of them are in the Old Town. Actually, every quarter is separated by a canal there. Grakhtenkhordehl canal system is one of the early examples of city planning in Europe. And it isn’t surprising, as then it was very difficult to build separate houses on wetlands of Amsterdam. The space was much waterlogged, so the houses were built close to one another to avoid their collapse in case if some pile would rot.
You may take a boat ride along the canals. The main starting point for such rides is near the Central Railway Station. There are several landings in different corners of the square. It would be better to do these trips in sunny weather. As when it is raining you couldn’t open the window to enjoy the surrounding views.