The city of Moscow was founded in 1147. After a period of feudal fragmentation, Moscow became the capital of Russia in the 14th century. The most powerful in Russia, the Moscow Kremlin, was built in Moscow, and an architectural ensemble was formed around it in the 15th and 16th centuries. The historical center of Moscow has become one of the first sites in Russia to be included in the UNESCO Cultural Heritage List.
In this review, you can read about the most beautiful sights of Moscow, included in the UNESCO Cultural Heritage List:
The Moscow Kremlin is the main sight of Russian capital, and by its world-wide fame, it is certainly the most important sight in Russia. Moscow Kremlin was a huge fortress, to be more exactly a walled city. It is located on the very site where Moscow was founded in 1147. The area of Kremlin is 27 hectares.
Sobornaya Square (Cathedral Square) is the most beautiful place in the Kremlin. The square was given this name because it is surrounded by ancient Russian cathedrals, including the main Russian cathedral – Assumption Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin. In addition, the square is surrounded by the Archangel Cathedral, the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the Annunciation Cathedral, the Faceted Chamber, and the Patriarchal Palace.
Red Square is sometimes called a symbol of Russia. Red Square is located near the eastern wall of the Moscow Kremlin. It is deservedly one of the most beautiful squares in the world. It appeared in the 15 century in the reign of Ivan III, who ordered not to erect buildings around the Kremlin after the fire.
After the capture of Kazan in 1555, the Intercession Cathedral was built on Vasilyevsky Descent near the Spassky Gate, which later became known as St. Basil's Cathedral. On the western side of the square rises the wall of the Moscow Kremlin, with the most beautiful towers. A Mausoleum was built on the square, where Lenin's embalmed body is located.
The Trinity-Sergius Lavra was founded in 1337 by a monk Sergiy called Radonezhskiy, which was one of the most venerable Russian saints (together with Seraphim Sarovskiy of Diveevo Monastery).
The main church of the monastery (built in 1422), Trinity Cathedral, houses relics of Sergius Radonezhskiy. While alive he blessed Dmitry Donskoy to the Kulikovskaya Battle, and after death he was canonized as the «patron saint of Russian Land». The Cathedral is considered one of the main religious sanctuaries of Russia, as well as pilgrimage center.
The largest temple of Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, Assumption Cathedral, was built in the reign of Ivan the Terrible, during 1559-1585. A huge Refectory Chamber is considered to be one of the best examples of Moscow baroque.
The Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye was built in 1528-1532 by the Grand Prince of Moscow Vassiliy III to commemorate the birth of his son Ivan, the future first Russian tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. The other buildings of the tsar`s summer residence Kolomenskoye, including the wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, and the Church of the Icon of Our Lady of Kazan, appeared a century later.
The height of the Ascension Church is 62 meters. It is the first tent-shaped church in Russia. Wall pillars and strong podklet (lower floor) made it possible to build a temple of unusual proportions. Actually, it is a tower church built on a grand scale. It is for its architectural features that the church was given the status of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Novodevichy Holy Virgin Mary Smolensky Monastery is located in the center of Moscow. It was closely connected with the political, cultural and religious life of Russia for 5 centuries. The monastery is one of the most beautiful monuments of the “Moscow Baroque” architectural style.
Novodevichy Monastery was built in 1524 on the bank of the Moskva River. It is dedicated to the Smolensk Icon of the Holy Virgin Mary, and was built by Prince Vasily III in honor of the return of the city of Smolensk to the Russian state in 1514.