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Poet Alexander Pushkin biography

Contemporaries and descendants recognize Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich as the most outstanding Russian poet. In this review on the Geomerid website, you can read about all stages of Pushkin's biography, as well as find links to all places in Russia that are connected with the poet's life. His contribution to the development of Russian literature and culture is huge; therefore, Pushkin memorial museums have been created almost in all places, where he lived. 

Russian writer and critic Apollo Grigoriev very accurately said: "Pushkin is our everything". Pushkin also touched on moral values. Pushkin became the national pride of the Russian people.

 

Zakharovo manor: the first years of Pushkin's biography

Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin was born on May 26, 1799 in the German quarter of Moscow. This quarter was located in the East of the capital, in the Izmailovo district. It was inhabited not only by Germans, but also by all foreigners. Tsar Peter I spent his childhood in the same area.

Alexander Pushkin's father was major Sergey Lvovich Pushkin from an ancient family of Nizhny Novgorod nobles. Their estate was located in the village of Boldino. Pushkin's mother, Nadezhda Osipovna Hannibal, belonged to the family founded by "Peter the Great's Arab", Abram Petrovich Hannibal, the son of an African Prince from Ethiopia. Their estate was located in the village of Mikhailovskoye, Pskov region.

The future poet spent his childhood in the estate of Zakharovo, Moscow region, near Zvenigorod. This estate was owned by the future poet's paternal grandmother, Maria Alekseyevna Hannibal, since 1804. The boy was fond of reading books from an early age, and he already began composing his first poems at the age of 7. Pushkin described his early years in later poems: "Monk" (1813), "Bova" (1814), "Epistle to Yudin" (1815), "Dream" (1816).

The Zakharovo estate was destroyed during World War II, but was later restored. The atmosphere of the first years of the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin is very accurately recreated in Museum-estate of Pushkin in Zakharovo.

 

Pushkin's studies at the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum

The parents planned to send their son to study at the Jesuit College, but in 1811 the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened. Its yellow building with an arch was attached to the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo. Emperor Alexander I still ruled very liberally at that time. Speransky developed the principles of the new state system. He planned that children of the highest nobility after graduation from this Lyceum will be prepared for "important parts of the state service" of the renewed Russia.

In the first enrollment there were a lot of talented children. Later, they played a significant role in the history of the Russian state. Gorchakov, who later became Chancellor of the Russian Empire, studied here with Pushkin. Here also studied Delvig, Matyushkin, Korf, Pushchin, Volhovskiy, Kuhelbeker.

Nowadays, the Museum of Pushkin in Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum is open to the public. The main exhibition is located on the third floor. You will see the Assembly hall, where the Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811. Three years later, fifteen-year-old Alexander Pushkin read his first poems to a respectable audience. Among those invited was Gavrila Derzhavin, famous Russian poet. This scene is captured in the painting.  At that time Pushkin's poetic talent was already fully revealed.

Then there are various classes, both for general and individual classes. There are also class registers where you can see what grades Pushkin received for his studies. On the fourth floor there were small rooms of Lyceum students, which Pushkin called cells.

 

Pushkin in the public service: the first exile

After graduating from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, Alexander Pushkin's biography is full of events. He was sent to the College of foreign Affairs as an officer of the 10th class, but did not begin real service. Pushkin became a member of the circle "Arzamas", and then the society "Green Lamp", which was part of the Masonic Lodge of the Decembrists of the Union of Prosperity.

He began to write provoking works, such as the ode "Liberty", poems "To Chaadaev", "Village". This drew the wrath of the Tsar, and he wanted to exile Pushkin to Siberia, but later it was decided to send him to the South of the Russian Empire.
At the beginning of 1820, Alexander Pushkin left first to Kishinev, to the administration of the new lands of Bessarabia. On the way, he fell ill with pneumonia, so he decided to go to the Crimea to improve his health. He first arrived in Feodosia, but spent most of his time in Gurzuf. In memory of the time that he spent in Gurzuf, the Pushkin literary Museum was created there.

In Kishinev, the new chief, Lieutenant General Ivan Inzov, did not bother him with work, so Pushkin completely devoted himself to working on his poems. Here he wrote "the Caucasian captive", "The song of the prophetic Oleg", "the Fountain of Bakhchisaray", "Ruslan and Lyudmila". Pushkin began working on the first chapters of his famous novel “Eugene Onegin” in these years. All these works began to be published and had a great success. Literary work began to bring Pushkin income, and he thought about ending public service.

In 1823, Pushkin was transferred to Odessa. There is also a Pushkin Museum in memory of the years he spent in this city. Pushkin could not work under the command of count Vorontsov at all. Later he wrote: "Vorontsov is a vandal, a court boor and a petty egoist. He sees me as a collegiate Secretary, and I confess I think something else of myself."

In 1824, Pushkin submitted a report of resignation from the civil service, but at this moment the secret police opened his letter addressed to the future Decembrist (rebel) Kuchelbecker, where he wrote about his passion for atheistic teachings. The poet was threatened not just with resignation, but with exile, but later it was decided to send him to the family estate in Mikhailovsky under police supervision.

 

Estate of Mikhailovskoye – family estate of Pushkin

Now this place in the center of the Pskov region is called Pushkinskie Hills (Pushkin’s Hills). Here is a very beautiful nature of the Russian middle region. There are several noble estates in Pushkin’s Hills. You should come here not only for the beauty of nature, but also if you are interested in the biography of Alexander Pushkin.

Mikhailovskoe is Pushkin's family estate. He spent there two years of exile. The Manor house of Pushkin stands on a high hill on the shore of Lake Kuchany. In the Park, there is "Alley Kern", where he met Anna Petrovna Kern, who was staying in Trigorsky estate. After this meeting, Pushkin wrote a well-known poem: "I remember a wonderful moment...".

The Trigorskoe estate is located 5 kilometers from Mikhailovskoe. Praskovya Alexandrovna Osipova and her daughters lived there. Pushkin visited them almost every day. Here you can see the most romantic places: Onegin bench, Tatiana Larina alley. On the opposite shore of the lake Kuchany family Gannibal leaved. They were ralatives of Pushkin. The most beautiful natural attraction of these places is Savkina Gorka. In general, you need for the sightseeing of Pushkin’s Hills at least 2-3 days.

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Pushkin lived in the Mikhailovskoye estate for 2 years, from 1824 to September 1826. He led a secluded lifestyle and actively worked on new works. Here he began writing the poem "Boris Godunov", where for the first time he moved away from fictional romance and began to portray the characters realistically. Here he also worked on new chapters of the poem "Eugene Onegin".

During Pushkin's exile in Mikhailovsky, in 1825, there was a Decembrist uprising in St. Petersburg. Pushkin did not support this uprising and wrote a petition to the new Emperor Nicholas I. On September 8, 1826, after an audience with the Emperor, he was released, but Nicholas I wanted to make him a court poet. However, it didn't work out. After Pushkin's poem "In the depths of Siberian ores", addressed to the Decembrists exiled to Siberia, supervision and censorship only increased, although Pushkin remained at large.

 

Goncharov’s Linen Factory in the Kaluga region

In December 1828, at the ball of the dance master Yogel, Pushkin first met Natalia Goncharova, who later became his wife. She belonged to the rich family of the Goncharov - Zagryazhsky.

The mother's estate was located in the city of Yaropolets, Moscow region. Here he visited mother of Natalia Goncharova to woo her young daughter. The answer was vague, although there was no refusal. Natalia was 16 years old at that time, and Pushkin was 30. Her mother thought she was too young to marry. Upset, Pushkin left for the Caucasus, but returned a year later and again asked for the hand of Natalia Goncharova. This time, consent was obtained.

After that, Natalia Goncharova and her fiance Alexander Pushkin visited the Linen factory in the Kaluga region, where Natalia's father and grandfather lived. The “Linen Factory” estate was founded by the Goncharovs ' ancestors during the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna. Here was located the production of paper. Thanks to that, the Goncharov family was very rich.

Pushkin visited the Linen Factory estate twice, in 1830 to meet the parents of his future wife, and in 1834, when they were already married. The manor house has been preserved here, where you can see an exhibition dedicated to the Goncharov family, as well as Alexander Pushkin. There is also a large landscape Park. Pushkin dedicated his epigrams to many oaks that have been growing here since the 19th century. You also need to go to the Museum of paper. The Goncharovs were engaged in the production of paper since 1735.

 

Pushkin's estate of Boldino – "Boldino autumn"

The marriage of Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova was hindered by the fact that there was no property in Pushkin's possession. His father decided to give his son a part of the Pushkin's family estate in Boldino, Nizhny Novgorod province, and Pushkin immediately went there. It was necessary to take possession of the estate and mortgage it in the Bank to get the money for the marriage.

Pushkin went to Boldino in the summer of 1830 and planned to spend no more than a month there, however, a cholera epidemic began in Russia and because of the quarantine, all movement of people around the country was prohibited. So Pushkin, instead of the planned marriage, was forced to spend the entire autumn in Boldino. Later it was called “Boldino autumn”.

This was one of the most productive stages of the poet's work. He almost finished working on the poem Eugene Onegin, wrote Belkin's Stories, "Small Tragedies", “Mermaid”, "the History of the village of Goryukhino" and many poems.
In December 1830, Pushkin returned to Moscow and on February 18, 1831, married Goncharova. Tsar Nicholas I granted the poet the rank of a chamber Junker. Thanks to that, they could visit the royal court.

 

Pushkin house-Museum on the Old Arbat

Immediately after the wedding, the newlyweds rented the second floor in the house in Moscow. Now it is the Pushkin memorial House-Museum on the Old Arbat street in Moscow. He called this time "a Bright existence".

On February 27, in the house on Arbat, the Pushkins gave their first ball. Their friend Bulgakov later recalled: "Pushkin the glorious gave a ball yesterday. Both he and she treated their guests well. She is lovely, and they are like two doves. God grant that this may always continue. Everyone danced a lot. There was a nice dinner. It seemed strange to everyone that Pushkin, who lived all in taverns, suddenly had such a household."

Unfortunately, Pushkin's relationship with his mother-in-law did not work out. She put forward many demands to him, including financial ones. Therefore poet was forced to leave Moscow on May 15, 1831 and move away from it to St. Petersburg.

 

Pushkin's dacha in Tsarskoye Selo

Pushkin's friend Pletnev rented a dacha (summer cottages) for them in Tsarskoye Selo, not far from the Catherine Palace. It is a beautiful two-story house with a mezzanine. Now the Pushkin Museum is Tsarskoe Selo is located here.

In this house, the Pushkins rented 8 rooms and lived here for their happy months, without Intrusive attention from their mother-in-law. Pushkin's work room was on the mezzanine floor, but the only furniture was a small table and chairs. Books and manuscripts lay on the floor. Alexander Pushkin wrote here a fairy-tale about Tsar Saltan, as well as Onegin's letter to Tatiana.

Subsequently, the Pushkins rented apartments in St. Petersburg in the winter, and rented cottages in Tsarskoye Selo in the summer. The Goncharova sisters (Ekaterina and Alexandra) lived with them. The Pushkins had four children.

 

Pushkin's apartment on Moika 12, St.Petersburg

On September 12, 1836, the large Pushkin family rented 11 rooms on the second floor of the house No. 12 on the Moika river embankment near the Konyushenny bridge. Pushkin's Apartment at 12 Moika street in Saint Petersburg now houses a Museum. Because of the frequent moves from one apartment to another, they had almost no furniture, only the most necessary things.

In the 30s, Pushkin's works became more realistic. Russian history became more and more his subject, raising issues that were important for Russian identity and self-awareness. At this time, he wrote the Story of Pugachev rebellion, the poem the Bronze horseman, however, many people did not like this direction in Pushkin's work.

At this time in the high society of St. Petersburg, the rumors about lovers of Natalia Goncharova were constantly exaggerated. Most of the intrigues were on the part of Georges Dantes. He was the adopted son of the Dutch envoy, Louis Gekkern and served in the cavalry regiment of Saint Petersburg.

Dantes first met Goncharova in 1835, and after that, Pushkin began receiving anonymous letters with hints of a relationship between his wife and Dantes. He challenged him to a duel, but he wooed Catherine, Natalia Goncharova's sister, and even married her. They later had 4 children.

However, the conflict between Pushkin and Dantes was not settled, and the rumors did not stop. As a result, Pushkin wrote an extremely insulting letter to Hecker, after which Dantes challenged him to a duel. On January 27, 1837, on the Black River in St. Petersburg, Pushkin was fatally wounded in the stomach. Two days later, he died in his apartment on Moika.

 

Svyatogorsk monastery – the Tomb of Pushkin

On February 3, 1836, after the funeral service in the Church of the Saviour on Konyushennaya square, Pushkin's coffin was sent to the Pushkin estate of Mikhailovsky, Pskov province. The ancestral necropolis of the Pushkins in the Svyatogorsky monastery is located near the Mikhailovskoye estate.

The poet's grandfather Osip Abramovich Hannibal (in 1806), the poet's grandmother Maria Alekseevna (in 1818), and mother Nadezhda Osipovna (in 1836) are buried in the family tomb of the Hannibals-Pushkins. A year later, as Pushkin buried his mother here, his body was brought to the Tomb.

On February 6, 1837, after a funeral service in the south aisle of the Assumption Cathedral, served by Archimandrite Gennady, the poet's body was buried at the altar wall.