The Tobolsk Kremlin is a single stone Kremlin in Siberia. This most beautiful masterpiece of Russian fortification architecture was erected in Tobolsk during 17-18 centuries when the city was the capital of the Siberian lands stretching from the Urals to Alaska.

A battle battle between the Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich and the troops of Tatar khan Kuchum took place on Chuvash Cape in 1582. As a result of the battle, which ended in the victory of the Cossacks, Siberian lands were finally annexed to Russia. Five years later, in 1587, the Cossacks built a wooden stockade with a Trinity church on the Alafeyevskaya Gora. It was located 17 kilometers from Isker, the former capital of the Sibir Khanate. That year is considered the date of the foundation of Tobolsk.

The first fortresses of Tobolsk were built from wood. This resulted in often fires and so in 1684 there was taken the decision about the construction of the first stone building in Siberia. It was the Cathedral of St. Sophia at the Tobolsk Kremlin.

In Tobolsk first stone buildings were erected by artels from Moscow and Veliky Ustyug, but in 1697 the Siberian prikaz commissioned the project of the complex development of the Kremlin to Semen Remezov, a Russian architect and a mapper. Having prepared the project Remezov went to Moscow where he studied «stone building» for several months at the Armory, which was in charge of fortress construction. In winter 1699 he returned to Tobolsk.

After the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Tobolsk there were erected strong defensive walls, the Prikaz Chamber, at the southern edge of the hill (1699-1704), and the Gostiny Dvor, on the Red Square (1702-1706), which became a trading center of Tobolsk. 

A combination of the Old Russian and European architectural styles is clearly traced in the architecture of the Kremlin buildings designed by Remezov. But the main merit of Remezov is the development of the layout of the Tobolsk Kremlin, which buildings he excellently fitted into landscape. On the right is the Sophia Court (a spiritual center of the Kremlin) and on the left is the Small (Voznesensky) Town, a secular and trading center of the Tobolsk Kremlin.

Initially, Peter the Great supported the construction of stone buildings in the Tobolsk Kremlin. But in 1714 he issued a ban on the construction of stone buildings all over Russia to balance the budget of the country during the Great Northern War. However, in spite of the ban the governor of Siberia, Prince Gagarin, continued to erect stone buildings until 1718 when he was summoned to Petersburg and executed on charges of embezzlement and high treason.

In the reign of Catherine II, in Tobolsk, then the center of newly established vice-regency, there appeared the palace of the vice-regent and the house of the bishop.In 1799 in the Tobolsk Kremlin there was erected a bell tower, which then was the tallest building in the city.

But already in 19 century, after Tobolsk lost the status of a capital, the construction of stone administrative buildings was stopped. In that century the complex of convict and transit prison was the only new buildings in Tobolsk. 

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Gostiny Yard is a trade center in Tobolsk, was built in 1708
Tobolsk. View of the Tobolsk Kremlin from the Governor Palace side
St.Sophia Cathedral in Tobolsk Kremlin. The first stone Church was built in Siberia in 1686
View of St.Sophia Cathedral, the bell tower (1799) and winter Intercession Cathedral (1746) from semnary
The Imperial throne of Catherine the Great, which she sent to Tobolsk in 1782
Highlighted in green the land, was ruled by the Royal governors from Tobolsk
View of St. Sophia Cathedral and the Bell tower (1799) from the side of Semnary
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Tobolsk Kremlin and the tower of the Gostiny Yard
Renteria built between the steep slopes of the hollow in Alafeevsky mountain in 1714
Pryamskoy downhill rising from the Lower town through the arches of Renteria to Tobolsk Kremlin
Pryamskoy decent goes down to Lower Town through the arches of Renteria
The interior of St. Sophia Cathedral in Tobolsk Kremlin
View of St.Sophia Cathedral, the bell tower (1799) and winter Intercession Cathedral (1746) from Semnary
Bishop house (1775) in Tobolsk Kremlin near the St.Sofia Cathedral
The Palace of Governor is located on top of Alafeevsky mountain above the Lower City
The viewpoint near the Palace of Governor over the Lower city and Irtysh river
There were shops for trade, warehouses and hotel rooms in Gostiny Yard in Tobolsk
Gostiny Yard in Tobolsk has a shape of rectangle, size 49х66 meters
The courtyard of Gostiny Yard in Tobolsk, where the shops were located and merchants traded
Steep slopes of Alefeevsky mountain and fortress wall with Pavlinsky and South-West towers
Eastern and South-Eastern towers of Tobolsk Kremlin
View to the East wall of Tobolsk Kremlin from viewpoint in Garden Ermak
The South-Western tower of the fortress wall of Tobolsk Kremlin