Ataman palace is a main building in the capitol of Don cossacks. In 1804 Matvey Platov, the ataman of the Don Cossack Host, took a decision to move the capital of the Cossack Host to a new place, as Cherkassk, as well as its approach roads, were flooded during the overflows of the Don virtually every year. 

However, the development of the new capital dragged on for decades because of the unwillingness of the cossacks to go far from the Don. It was for this reason that the ataman palace appeared in Novocherkassk only in 1864.

The Don Cossack Host played an important role in the defense of the southern borders of Russia, so it had always special relationships with Russian emperors. From the time of Peter the Great all Russian emperors often came to the Don, and since 1827 a heir to the throne was always appointed the most august ataman of the Don Cossack Host. To accept the symbols of ataman power including the flanged mace (a variety of mace) the heirs came to Novocherkassk. So there arose a need in the ataman palace where the members of the Imperial House could stay.

The decision on the construction of the Ataman Palace was taken at the Military Council in 1860. All construction works were finished in 1863. The palace was built in the style of strict classicism. A fountain and a public garden is in front the palace. The monument of Matvey Platov is in the public garden. 

Now the Ataman Palace with restored interiors of 19 century is occupied by a museum. In the state-rooms of the palace you can see the portraits of the atamans of the Don Cossack Host, as well as historical documents related to the role of the Don Cossack Host in the development of the south of Russia in 19 century. A small museum is in one of the rooms of the Ataman Palace. It is devoted to the tragic events of June 1962 when the demonstration of workers was shot on the square in front of the palace.