There are four imperial forums near the Roman Forum, which is the center of political and public life of the city. They were built at different times. The Trajan`s Forum is the latest of them. It is now in the best condition. Three other forum – those of Caesar, Augustus and Nerva – lay in ruins but are of big interest for tourists.
The Forum of Caesar is the oldest forum. It was built as an extension of the Roman Forum in 46 B.C. It is near the later Forum of Trajan. The Forum of Caesar has a small area of 170 x 75 meters. On the site of the Forum of Augustus there remained only the ruins of the Temple of Venus.
The Forum of Augustus was built by the emperor Octavianus Augustus in 2 A.D. Covered colonnades was at the sides of the Forum of Augustus. The Temple of Mars Ultor was in the center of the forum. Octavianus Augustus was a grand nephew of Caesar killed by the conspirators in 44 A.D. In his will Caesar acknowledged Octavianus Augustus as his son. As a result, the latter got in the center of political life. Later, he was repeatedly elected consul.
Together with Mark Antony he began the war on the killers of Caesar. And in 42 A.D. the conspirators were defeated in the final Battle of Philippi. Octavianus Augustus believed that he won the battle thanks to Mars, so he built a temple devoted to this god at the forum.
The construction of the Forum of Nerva was started under the emperors Vespasian and Domitianus and was finished in the reign of Nerva in 98 A.D. So, the forum was given the name of this emperor. The Forum of Nerva also is small. It has an area of 120 x 45 meters, so it was often called Transistorium that is a passage between the Roman Forum and the Forum of Augustus. The Temple of Minerva was the main structure of the forum. You can still see its ruins.