For several centuries the Roman Forum was the center of the Ancient Rome. It is in the valley between the Palatine, Capitoline and Esquiline hills. Most ancient structures now lay in ruins but some of them, which were built in 100-300 A.D., are in good condition.

In ancient times Rome consisted of separate settlements on several hills, Palatine, Capitoline and Quirinal, without a single center. And only under Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, the legendary fifth king of Rome, on the site of the Roman Forum the Cloaca Maxima was constructed. The world`s earliest sewage system allowed to drain the valley between the hills and create a single city center. Later, it was just this skill in construction of sewage systems, aqueducts and roads that made it possible for the Romans to colonize large territories in the Mediterranean.

At first the Roman Forum was only a trading area. But eventually it became the center of business, public, political and religious life of the vast Roman Empire. All public events took place just there. Since the time of the Roman Republic executions were also held on the Roman Forum.

If you enter the Forum from the side of the Coliseum, then, passing along the Via Sacra, you can see the remains of the Golden Palace of Nero. The main constructions of the Forum are behind the Arch of Titus (circa 82 A.D.). It is the oldest triumphal arch in Rome. If you turn left at the arch, you can climb onto the Palatine, and if you go forward, you will get in the main part of the Forum.

There are two roads in the Forum. The Via Sacra (Sacred Road) runs on the right, and the Via Nova (New Road) – on the left, at the foot of the Palatine. In the Via Sacra you can see large-scale ruins of the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. It was erected in 315 A.D. Three giant arches reaching the height of 39 meters are what is left of the basilica. Further on you can see the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina built in 141 A.D. In 7 century A.D. it was adapted as a Roman Catholic church and so survived to our days almost intact.  In the center of the Forum you can see large-scale ruins of the Temple of Vesta.

The oldest part of the Forum is at the foot of the Capitoline hill. There you can see ruins of the Temple of Saturn built in 489 B.C. It is the oldest temple in the Roman Forum. On the Roman Forum you can also see the Arch of Septimius Severus and a rectangular building of the Curia Julia or Senate House. These constructions survived to our days in excellent condition. The Curia Julia was repeatedly rebuilt and now you can see the building dating back to 3 century A.D., which was reconstructed by the order of Benito Mussolini in 1932. 

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Roman Forum. There are many monuments built in the ancient and medieval period
Via Sacra and via Nova extends along the entire Roman forum
Huge ruins of Tiberius Palace, towering over the Roman Forum
The Arch of Septimius Severus is located at the foot of the Capitoline hill in the Roman Forum
In our days, from the temple of Saturn remained only 7 high ionic columns, built in 42 BC
The arch of Septimius Severus, surrounded by later buildings in the Roman Forum
Near the temple of Antoninus and Faustina is located a small round temple of Romulus
View of the via Sacra and the via Nova from the Palatine hill
Via Nova, near the Palatine hill in the Roman Forum
The temple of Saturn was founded at the foot of Capitol hill in 489 BC, and the altar of Saturn was from the first years of the founding of Rome
The temple of Saturn is located at the foot of Capitol hill, where is the building of Tabularia (State Archives)
Arch Titus was built at The Roman Forum in 82 for the triumph of Emperor Titus in honor of the capture of Jerusalem
The arch of Titus was built in the Roman Forum at the beginning of the via Sacra from the Colosseum side
The Arch of Septimius Severus was built in 205 AD to honor the victory over Parthia
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine was built at the Roman Forum in 308 year
Beautiful colonnade distinguishes the Church of Antonina and Faustina among other buildings of the Roman Forum
The ancient pavement of the Roman forum
Via Sacra near the Temple of Venus and Roma
At the top of the ruins of Tiberius Palace is an observation deck with the most beautiful view of the Forum
The ruins of the temple of Vesta in the Roman forum at the foot of the Palace of Tiberius
Church of Antonina and Faustina among the ruins of the Roman Forum
Emperor Maxentius was inspired to construction of the Basilica by great baths of Caracalla
The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine rises above other buildings of the Roman Forum