The Kulikovo Battle Field is a place where the combined forces of Russian princedoms led by Moscow prince Dmitry Donskoi barred the way to the Russian lands for the host of the khan Mamay on September, 1380. On September 8, 1380 the Battle of Kulikovo occurred there, which ended in the complete defeat of the troops of Mamay.
In the second half of 14 century several khans were changed on the throne of the Golden Horde. And as a result, the throne was seized by the temnik (emir or a commander of 10 000 warriors) Mamay who had no rights to the throne. A domestic strife began and using the situation the Russian princes refused to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. To restore his power Mamay decided to invade Russia in 1380.
The assembly of Russian troops in Kolomna was scheduled for August 5, 1380. Mamay received support from Genoa, which sent a unit of Genoese spearmen. The Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila was also on his side and moved his troops in Russia where they had to join the troops of the Ryazan prince Oleg.
Ryazan always was in a difficult position, as it was the first to be ravaged in any war. So Mamay forced the Ryazan prince Oleg to join the troops of Jogaila. He complied but didn’t reported at the fixed time to join the troops of Jogaila and the latter decided not to take part in the Battle of Kulikovo.
The brothers of Jogaila, Dmitry and Andrei, sides with Dmitry Donskoy, so the forces were relatively equal. About 60 thousand Russians and about 70-90 thousand Tatar-Mongols took part in the battle.
Today there are several memorial places related to the events of 1380 on the Kulikovo Battle Field: Monastyrschino, the Red Hill, a museum on the Kulikovo Field and Yepifan. The Russian host stopped in the village Yepifan, which was then a fortress on the fortified line, just before the battle. On September 7 it crossed the Don river near the village Monastyrschino and took up its positions on the Kulikovo Field. In the Zelenaya Dubrava (Green Grove) between the Don and Smolka rivers a regiment commanded by the seasoned voivode, prince Dmitry Bobrok lied in ambush.
The battle opened with a single combat between the monk Alexander Peresvet and Chelubey. It was followed by the battle between the Sentry regiment and the Tatar vanguard. In the course of the main battle the host of Mamay was able to significantly push back the Right Hand regiment while the Lithuanian troops held the field with their last strength. At that moment the Ambush regiment attacked the Tatars from the rear. That turned the scale of the battle. The Tatars began to fall back and when the Russians made their way to the headquarters of the khan Mamay on the Red Hill, the retreat turned into a flight. It is on the Red Hill that the victory banner was hoisted. Today here is located the monument in honor of Dmitry Donskoy.