Luxor temple on the Bank of the Nile was built during the reign of the pharaohs Ramses II and Amenhotep in the 14th century BC. Luxor temple was the second in its sacred significance after the Karnak temple. These two temples were connected by an alley 3 kilometers long, where 365 sphinxes were installed.
Luxor and Karnak temples are located in the City of the Living on the left Bank of the Nile river. The Egyptians called this city Waset, the Greeks - Thebes, and now it is called Luxor. The most monumental constructions of the Luxor temple were built by Pharaoh Ramses II. The length of the Luxor temple reaches 260 meters. There are 20-meter pylons in front of the entrance.
In front of them, 6 giant statues of Pharaoh Ramses were installed, but only three (two sitting figures and one standing) have preserved nowadays. Two obelisks of pink granite stood in front of the entrance. One of them is in its place. The second was presented in 1819 by Muhammad Ali Pasha to king Louis-Philippe of France, and is now installed on the Place de La Concorde in Paris.
The Luxor temple was dedicated to the three gods most revered in Luxor: Amon-Ra (God of the Air), Mut (goddess of the Sky), and Khonsu (their son, God of the Moon). The preservation of the Luxor temple is one of the best among the temples of Ancient Egypt. Only the temple of Horus in Edfu is better preserved.
After the entrance pylons, visitors enter the Courtyard of Ramses. This is a huge courtyard of the temple, surrounded by columns in the form of papyrus stalks. Between the columns of the South side of the courtyard, Pharaoh Ramses installed walking sculptures of his predecessor Amenhotep III and his own. In the 11th century, the Abu Haggag mosque was added to the entrance pylon in the corner of the courtyard.
From the courtyard of Ramses, visitors pass through the Colonnade of Amenhotep and Ramses. 14 giant columns are installed on the sides, so it is sometimes called "Alley with columns". After that, you enter the Courtyard of Amenhotep. Then through the hypostyle hall, you can enter the sanctuaries.
Under the Emperor Diocletian in the 3rd century AD, the Luxor temple began to serve as a fortress for Roman legionaries, so a fortress wall was built around it. During the excavations of recent years, parts of this wall were discovered. There is also a partial restoration of the alley of sphinxes, which ran between the Karnak and Luxor temples. Unfortunately, due to the dense modern development, it is not possible to restore it completely.