The Cathedral of the Assumption of the most Holy Theotokos, the main Church of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra, was founded in 1073 by the monastery`s Abbot, Theodosius. The people called it the Great Temple, the "God-Created" prototype of all the temples of Kievan Rus.

In the 11th century, building a stone temple of this scale was a difficult task for local craftsmen, so architects from Byzantium were invited. By that time, two large St. Sophia cathedrals had already been erected: one St.Sofia Cathedral in Kiev (in 1037), and the other St.Sofia Cathedral in Veliky Novgorod (in 1045).

The Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra was founded in 1073, but the names of the masters are not exactly known. According to the chronicle of those years, the temple was built in 3 years by Byzantine masters at the expense of Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich.

The Assumption Cathedral was often destroyed. In 1230, it suffered from an earthquake. In 1240, most of Kiev was destroyed during the storming of the city by the army of Batu Khan. The Assumption Cathedral could be restored only in 1470, but in 1482 it was looted by the Crimean Tatars of Khan Mengli-Giray.

In 1718, the Assumption Cathedral was significantly damaged during a fire. In 1727, it was restored and expanded. It acquired a look in the Ukrainian Baroque style, which remained until 1941. During the World War II, the Assumption Cathedral was blown up, but in 2000 it was completely restored.

The Church has three naves and several domes. The proportions of width to length of the temple (2:3) became canonical for other temples of Ancient Russia. The exterior of the Cathedral is decorated with mosaics made in the Byzantine style. Under the roof of the pavilion in front of the entrance to the temple, you can see a large block of brickwork. This is part of the Assumption Cathedral with the original masonry of the 11th century.