Since the foundation of Rome the Palatine Hill was a very important hill in the history of the city. According to legend, it was near near this hill that she-wolf Lupa found Romulus and Remus. Romulus wanted to build the city on the Palatine Hill and Remus – on the Aventine Hill. Finally, Romulus killed Remus and founded the «eternal city»  on the Palatine Hill on April 21, 753 B.C.

Since 6 century B.C. the houses of noble families and then those of emperors were located on the Palatine Hill. It stands 40 above the city. Octavianus Augustus was born on the Palatine Hill. When Augustus became emperor, he built there his residence.

After that all rulers of Rome had their palaces built just on the Palatine Hill. The palaces of Roman emperors mostly were located on the south side of the hill overlooking the Circus Maximus. This allowed to watch races, which were held at the Circus Maximus. Today on the Palatine Hill you can see the remains of the palaces, which once belonged to such emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Nero, Flavius, and Septimius Severus. All the palaces were included in a single complex known as the Palatium.

On the Palatine Hill the best preserved buildings are the House of Livia (1 century B.C.), the House of Augustus (1 century B.C.), and the Temple of Kibela (20 B.C.). Of the other structures only foundations and large wall sections remained. But they are still very impressive and give an idea of the scale of the ancient Roman architecture.