The institution for mud cures (or mud baths), now bearing the name of Semashko, is rightly considered one of the most beautiful buildings in Yessentuki, as well as in the entire Mineralnye Vody Region. It takes up half a quarter and is built in the antique style.

The history of the Semashko Mud Baths began in 1911 when a competition was announced for the project of one the largest mud baths in the region. The competition was won by Y. F. Shretter, an architect from St. Petersburg, who suggested to construct the building in the style of the ancient Roman thermae, which would be suitable for arranging medical treatment procedures.

The entrance to the Yessentuki mud baths is built in the style of the ancient Roman temple with Ionic columns, and the side buildings – in the style of ancient Roman thermae. At the entrance one can see the sculptures of Asclepius, the ancient Greek god of medicine, and his daughter Hygieia, the goddess of cleanliness and health. Having entered the building you find yourself in a large hall called the Atrium. Some other sculptures are on the floor and bas-reliefs are on the walls; everything is arranged in the style of the luxurious ancient Roman thermae.

The patients are treated there with the silt sulphide mud from the salt lake Tambukan, which is 9 kilometers from Pyatigorsk. Some doctors think the properties of the Tambukan mud are comparable or even superior to those of the Dead Sea mud.