The major medical institution of the resort – Zheleznovodsk mud baths – is near the Cascade stairs at the foot of the eastern slope of the Zheleznaya mountain.

Unlike the other resorts of the Mineralnye Vody region, where the similar institutions appeared in czarist days, in Zheleznovodsk the mud baths was opened in 1971. It was built in the style of constructivism, the front side featuring the peculiar cubic elements.

Zheleznovodsk mud baths offers the most different treatment: mud baths, mineral baths, oral mineral water intake, douche baths, massages, manual therapy and many other procedures.

The patients are treated with the sulphide silt mud from the salt lake Tambukan, which is 9 kilometers from Pyatigorsk. Some doctors think the properties of the Tambukan mud are comparable or even superior to those of the Dead Sea mud.