The Church of Cosmas and Damian in Kaluga is one of the most beautiful churches in Russia, built in the Baroque style. It is located away from the city center, where most of the sights of Kaluga are located. This is due to the church was built near the forges, which were moved to the Moscow Gates in the second half of the 18th century. 

The twins Cosmas and Damian were born on the Arabian Peninsula in the 3rd century AD, and lived in Asia Minor (the territory of modern Turkey). They were called unmercenary saints, since they treated all people, poor and rich, and never took money for it. The brothers preached the Christian faith and were executed during the persecution under the emperor Diocletian. Saints Cosmas and Damian are revered by both Catholics and Orthodox. 

In the Russian Orthodox tradition, Cosma and Damian are not only considered the patrons of doctors, but they are often called God`s Blacksmiths. November 14, the day of memory of Cosmas and Damian, blacksmiths celebrate as their holiday. 

The wooden church of Cosmas and Damian near the Kaluga forges was built in the first half of the 17th century. In 1754, after a fire, blacksmiths built a stone church. However, the city authorities decided to move the forges away from the city center, so the church was dismantled and assembled in a new place in 1794. 

The beauty of the baroque style of the Church of Cosmas and Damian resembles the temples and palaces of St. Petersburg, built by the famous architect Francesco Rastrelli. The name of the architect of the Church of Cosmas and Damian is unknown, but the inhabitants of Kaluga believed that he was a disciple of the famous architect. The refectory and the bell tower were added to the Church of Cosmas and Damian in 1824. They are built in the architectural style of classicism.