Rostov Gorky Academic Drama Theatre is on the Theatre Square. Its tractor-shaped building constructed in 1935 was internationally recognized as one of the masterpieces of Soviet constructivism.

The academic theatre appeared in Rostov-on-Don already in 1863, but the troupe hadn’t a permanent building. At the beginning of 20 century the Theatre Square was a waste ground outside the fortified wall of Rostov. Now one can see the redoubt of Alexander Nevsky, which remained from the fortress, at the nearby First of May Park. Nakhichevan-on-Don was just outside the fortified wall. In 1928 Nakhichevan-on-Don was included in Rostov-on-Don, and next year it was decided to create a large square between them and build a theatre on it.

In 1930 tenders for the theatre project were invited where the project of V. Shchuko and V. Gelfreich won. They offered to simulate the theatre building as the first Soviet caterpillar tractor «Communard».

Most world-renowned architects call the project the «pearl of Soviet constructivism». It was included in many catalogues and architecture textbooks.